Volume 1. Issue 1. Winter 2012.
- Richard Carlson (SOAS, University of London; independent researcher) Kazakhstan: A Nationalising or Internationalising State.
- Sevket Akyildiz (SOAS, University of London) Aims, Goals and Implementation of Soviet Education in Central Asia.
- Alex Calvo (European University, Barcelona) President Ma’s Peace Initiative and the Strategic Triangle Beijing-Taipei-Tokyo.
- Gul Berna Ozcan (Royal Holloway, University of London) Book review: Alex Marshall The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule. New York: Routledge, 2010, p. 387.
- Dave Day (Manchester Metropolitan University) Book launch: Dave Day Professionals, Amateurs and Performance – Sports Coaching in England 1789-1914.Oxford: Peter Lang, 2012, p. 298. Series: Sport, History and Culture. Volume 3.
Kazakhstan: A Nationalising or Internationalising State
Following independence in 1991 the Republic of Kazakhstan has been trying to negotiate away to increase representation for its titular nationality, the Kazakhs, while at the same time accommodating its large Russian minority. As a result, the government of Nursultan Nazarbayev, president of Kazakhstan since independence, has continued to use the internationalising terminology it inherited from the Soviet Union, while at the same time is quietly pursuing a nationalising agenda.
Keywords: Kazakhstan, nationalism, internationalism, minorities, ethnic identity.
Carlson, Richard (2012), ‘Kazakhstan: A Nationalising or Internationalising State’, The Eurasia Studies Society Journal, Vol. 1. No. 1 (October 2012) at http://eurasiahistory.com/2012-journal/
Aims, goals and implementation of Soviet education in Central Asia
Sevket Hylton Akyildiz
Education in the Soviet system from the 1920s was a primary agency of radical socio-cultural transformation. The strategy of the Communist Party of the newly formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (established 1922) was to mobilise the masses by co-opting them into the ideological project and vision. The Party management of intellectual, moral and social instruction was planned to ensure socialisation, social integration, and social order. Education also assisted in the formation of state and national identities. In Central Asia, as in the Russia, the aim of this policy was to create a new consciousness in the minds of the people which would be based on the collective model. This new worldview was to provide the populace with a reason for political obligation towards the Party. It also gave the regime legitimacy and authority. Soviet education was core in the secularization programme instigated to replace traditional and Muslim attitudes, values, beliefs, and social structures. Furthermore, education within Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was designed to create patriotic industrious workers. Overall, the Soviet educational system was a social construction which under the circumstances improved the quality of life for the masses (especially the poor, young men, and urban women). (This paper was produced in 2000 as part Sevket’s Master of Arts qualification at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.)
Keywords: Central Asia, Soviet education, socialisation, consciousness, state-identity, institution building.
This article should be cited as: Sevket Akyildiz, ‘Aims, Goals and Implementation of Soviet Education in Central Asia’, in The Eurasia Studies Study Journal, Vol. 1. No. 1 (October 2012), at http://eurasiahistory.com/2012-journal/
President Ma’s Peace Initiative and the Strategic Triangle Beijing-Taipei-Tokyo.
The election of Ma Ying-jeou (馬英九) to the presidency of the Republic of China (ROC) in 2008 was met with relief at many quarters, hopeful that his KMT (Guomingdang, Chinese Nationalist Party) party’s more friendly attitude towards China would result in better cross-Strait relations and thereby contribute to stability in East-Asia. Regardless of one’s views on the wisdom of such assertion, the events this summer, including incidents in the Senkaku Islands (known as Diaoyutai in Chinese) and continued controversy over the ROC’s flag, have shown that the situation is much more complex. Among other reasons because in addition to the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the ROC in Taiwan, and the United States, the role and interests of Japan must also be taken into account in any meaningful analysis of the regional balance of power and prospects for the future.
Calvo, Alex (2012), ‘President Ma’s Peace Initiative and the Strategic Triangle Beijing-Taipei-Tokyo’, The Eurasia Studies Society Journal, Vol. 1. No. 1 (October 2012) at http://eurasiahistory.com/2012-journal/
Book review: Alex Marshall The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule. New York: Routledge, 2010, p. 387.
Gul Berna Ozcan.
In The Caucasus Under Soviet Rule, Alex Marshall examines the complexities of internal politics in the Caucasus with its pre and post-Soviet episodes. By relying on a wide range of Russian and Soviet sources, in addition to others, Marshall demonstrates the need for an alternative approach to the prevailing anti-Soviet discourse and shows his skillfulness in using a wide range of archival material. Vociferous Western or British scholarship on the Soviet Union, Marshall points out, has been colored by ideological convictions and geopolitical interests. This work should be seen in relation to a different and more nuanced interpretation of the history of the region in that it introduces an honest tinge of admiration for Marxism and the Soviet project. Although many would find this problematic, and there are occasional excesses, this work nevertheless fills an obvious gap in Western scholarship. (Full article available below.)
Book launch: Dave Day Professionals, Amateurs and Performance – Sports Coaching in England 1789-1914. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2012, p. 298. Series: Sport, History and Culture. Volume 3.
ISBN 978-3-0343-0824-3 pb. (Softcover)
While the relationship between amateurism and sport is well documented, the impact of this ethos on the professional coaches and trainers who directed and supported elite sporting performance has been entirely overlooked. This book investigates the foundations of coaching and training practices and chronicles how traditional approaches to performance preparation evolved during the nineteenth century. Drawing on primary sources Day argues that approaches to coaching replicated the traditional craft approach to skilled work. The advent of centralized, amateur-controlled governing bodies of sport created a significant shift in the coaching environment for professional coaches, meaning that individuals had to adapt to the master-servant relationship preferred by the middle classes. Cultural differences in the value accorded to coaching also contributed to a decline in the competitiveness of British athletes in the international arena. Day concludes by arguing that despite scientific advances, Edwardian coaching practices remained reliant on long-established training principles and that coaching practices in any period are inevitably an amalgamation of both tradition and innovation.