Vol.5. No.1 2016 & 2017

Volume 5. No. 1.  2016 & 2017

Contents

  1. Sevket Hylton Akyildiz,  ‘Hastings Mosque and Muslims in “1066 Country“: Seaside Resort Town Muslims of Hastings and St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, United Kingdom (circa 1985-2015)’. (A working paper)
  2. Alex Calvo,  ‘Japan’s reluctance to station military personnel in the Senkaku Islands: step towards peace or counterproductive move?’
  3. Alex Calvo,  ‘Pakistan’s military modernization: an overview’.
  4. Cyrus Ki Yip YEE  ‘Wither Mongolian Consciousness? Or, Ethnic Politics in Mongolia in Early 20th Century’.

 

Sevket Hylton Akyildiz,
‘Hastings Mosque and Muslims in “1066 Country“: Seaside Resort Town Muslims of Hastings and St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, United Kingdom (circa 1985-2015)’.
Abstract
My short study outlines a number of general social, cultural and historical themes pertaining to Hastings Mosque and the practising male and female Muslims of that town: Firstly, I will discuss the origins of the mosque, describe the townscape and social environment around the mosqueand review statistical information on the town’s Muslim residentsSecondly, by surveying the mosque, I outline the themes of architecture, facilities, disability access, education, diversity of the congregation, local burial, and public outreach. At present, the study of mosques and Muslims in British and European coastal resort towns is inadequately researched. This introductory paper seeks to better inform the general reader about social change and shifting patterns of worship at one seaside town in South-East England. (2,500 Words)

PDF available to download here:

https://www.academia.edu/20257970/Hastings_Mosque_and_Muslims_in_1066_Country_Seaside_Resort_Town_Muslims_of_East_Sussex_United_Kingdom_circa_1985-2015_

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Alex Calvo,

‘Japan’s reluctance to station military personnel in the Senkaku Islands: step towards peace or counterproductive move?’

Abstract

Tokyo’s policy of not deploying ground troops on the Senkaku/Diaoyau/Diaoyautai Islands is designed to lower tensions, as Chinese trawlers and coastguard ships keep probing the waters around them. Beijing may land troops or ‘activists’ on one or more islands, without opening fire on Japanese forces, in order to prompt negotiations on her terms and dare Tokyo to be the first to resort openly to force in order to recover them. This could take the form of an airborne landing, against which Japanese Coast Guard units and the ROEs under which they operate are not prepared. Helicopters could be deployed conventionally, or from hangars in converted trawlers. The key difference between ships and aircraft is that while one can physically block boats without sinking them, it is much more difficult to prevent the passage of an aircraft without downing it. The lack of a ‘tripwire’, that is troops on the ground, makes it easier for Beijing to miscalculate, invading in the hope that Japan will not react. Therefore, in order to promote peace and reduce the risks of war, it is the opposite policy which must be pursued. Deploying ground troops would signal to Beijing that no bloodless invasion could take place, reducing the scope for a miscalculation.

PDF available to download here:

No Troops in Senkaku Islands by Alex Calvo

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Alex Calvo,

‘Pakistan’s military modernization: an overview’.

Abstract

Pakistan’s three traditional strategic imperatives are uniting a diverse population, confronting India, and keeping Afghanistan divided, to which we can add maritime security. A look at the country’s defence policy reveals how they remain the driving force behind Islamabad’s efforts at military modernization. At the nuclear level, Pakistan keeps working to achieve a full triad, including sea-based components, while modernizing and expanding tactical weapons. Concerning conventional forces, modernization goes hand in hand with import-substitution, in a bid to expand export markets. Relations with China remain an important pillar of Islamabad’s defence industry, which seeks to add more value and export to third countries. While the United States remains an important defence industry partner, Islamabad is increasingly relying on Beijing, as clear from plans to renew her submarine fleet with the acquisition of four boats and the production under licence of a further four. While the Navy is to some extent diversifying away from Karachi, the city remains of the utmost importance to the Pakistani military and the country at large, contributing 25 per cent of GDP, with the proposed China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) raising even further the country’s maritime profile.

PDF available to download here:

Pakistan’s Military Modernisation by Alex Calvo

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Cyrus Ki Yip YEE

‘Wither Mongolian Consciousness? Or, Ethnic Politics in Mongolia in Early 20th Century’.

Abstract

On 29 December 1911, the elites of Outer (“Khalkha” in Mongolian) Mongolia declared their country’s independence from the Qing empire or, in the words of Mongolian historian Uradyn E. Bulag, restored their independent ulus (country or realm) prior to submitting to the Manchu emperors in 1691. From the outset, the Urga government sought to form a state comprising all the Mongols from Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tangno Uriyangqai, and Hulun Buir. However, this Pan-Mongolian movement, the first of its kind in the twentieth century, ended up in failure because, among other things, the Inner Mongolian elites refused to join their brethren in the north and chose to remain in the newly established Republic of China that succeeded the Qing empire.

This essay seeks to probe why the unification process of the Khalkha Mongols ended up in failure. Specifically, I would examine why the Inner Mongolian elites, despite their enthusiastic support for the independence cause during early 1912, chose to remain in the Chinese Republic in the end. For this reason, I would leave aside the Mongols in other parts of the Mongolian Region.

PDF available to download here:

Cyrus Ki Yip Yee_Wither Mongolian Consciousness
Biography

Cyrus Ki Yip Yee is a PhD holder in History (2017) at the SOAS, University of London. He also holds two MA (Comparative and Public History, and Literary and Cultural Studies) and one MPhil (History) degrees awarded by the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the University of Hong Kong respectively. He was a Research Associate at Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and was a Lecturer at HKU SPACE. From March to April 2017, he was a Visiting Scholar of La Trobe University, Melbourne and the University of Adelaide, Australia respectively. His publications include “澳門渡輪發展述略” [A Survey on the Development of Macau’s Ferry Services] (with others), “清朝治理西藏體制的歷史考察”[ An Historical Enquiry into the Governing Institutions of the Qing dynasty in Tibet], etc. Important conference papers include “陳儀與國民黨治台策略 (1945-47)” [Chen Yi and Kuomintang’s Taiwan Policy (1945-47)], “China’s New Administration in the Inner Asian Frontiers in the Late Qing Period 1901-1911”, and “Qing Ethnic Policy in Mongolia”.